Graceblair’s Blog

Artefacts and Products

Throughout this blog we have seen that produsage, while applied to a serious of different domains and sources has one great feature in common, that is information. Information as news, knowledge, metadata, creative work and in some cases the glue that binds communities (Bruns, pg 205). This information allows the creation of a relationship between artefacts and products. Today’s blog will discuss the relationship between the two.

Artefacts to Products

Bruns highlighted the act of changing artefacts to products. He raises the question that, “to what extent produsage by communities themselves, or in collaboration with commercial entities, may be able to be applied even beyond the realms which we have encountered so far.

So how does it work? Stefano Borgo from the Laboratory for Applied Ontology in Italy provides a great example of the process of the conversion. He uses an example of a pebble. If he was to be at the beach and find a pebble and think to himself, “Wow that would make a nice paper weight for my office”, then the paper weight is not the pebble itself but is CONSTITUDED by the pebble. The paper-weight is created when he formed the intention to use the pebble as a paper-weight which, in this approach, means that he selected the pebble for some paper-weight capacity.

An example Bruns’ uses to describe to creation of production in the sense of open source software was an instance where a community shared information about kite surfing. The community discussed improving designs for the aerodynamic kites. Production is then created as the information is put to use improving the standards of the kites themselves.  

 Products to Artefacts

The process of turning products to artefacts is the converse procedure of what was just discussed. Bruns acknowledges that the process of turning permanent products in to a more temporary form of artefact is also possible.

An example of this is commercial shopping communities. These communities act as an information tool. The sites provide information in regards to permanent products. One of the most well known sites would be eBay. EBay is an online shopping forum. The site allows users to provide information and feedback in regards to buyers, sellers and their products.


This will be my final blog in this series. I hope that is have given you an insight to the growing world of Produsage and the impact it has on Web 2.0.

Feel free to leave any comments, messages or questions regarding the blog and hopefully it can be maintained as a an artefact aiding the creation of products.



Axel Bruns. (2007). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage. New York: Peter Lang.

Laboratory for Applied Ontology. (2009). From Artefacts to Products. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 1 June, 2009]


The Great Divide – Pro vs Amateur

“A manifestation of the Web population’s collective intelligence which, though not new, is now becoming increasingly visible and accessible (Bruns, pg 199). The great success of the online world of produsage leads to the great divide of amateur and professional. In previous entries I have discussed the lack of importance placed on the educational status of the contributor to online forums.

Spawned from produsage cultures, professionals are no longer the only contributors to educational resources. Collaboration is the key to online resourcing in the twenty first century. Open source software allows the general public to contribute to its entire network of information.

The amateur versus professional debate has before been mentioned in this blog in regards to Wikipedia. The validation of its content is somewhat speculated against because of its nature to be open sourced. I have further justified the credibility of these sources  by explaining the effects of having the sources open to large numbers of contributors. With a great range of people able to add/delete/edit information, what is left behind after countless attempts at edited would most likely be what the group as a whole finds to be a true representation.

When professionals and amateurs are placed in the forum the total information gathered is more likely to be accurate and of assistance. For once, the consumer (or prosumer) is given information from two sides of the spectrum. They are receiving accurate information seen through two very different sets of eyes. Ultimately this information is going to be more sought after then one sided views.  

Amatuers are given a wide range of sources through the Web 2.0. Not only are they now provided with sources, but these come from professionals from various professions. As discussed in last weeks blog on Wikipedia, amateurs are able to source information quickly on just about any topic they can think of. This is a second example of the bridged gap between the professionals and the amateurs.

In a public health perspective we must acknowledge the importance of medical based sights such as in providing amateurs with information. These sources deliver accurate personalised information that may otherwise be quite difficult for an amateur to freely find.

Next week I will be discussing DIY Culture and Design.

Feel free to leave any comments or additional information.


Axel Bruns. (2007). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage. New York: Peter Lang.

Wikipedia – Online Phenomenon

I have to say, as a school student this was my initial and favourite form of ‘research’. Although blacklisted by just about all teachers Wikipedia is an excellent source of information on just about every topic you can imagine, from Intergalactic digital research to The Wiggles. With almost 3 millions articles written in English alone, this is a great example of citizen journalism in practise.  

Wikipedia defines itself as “a free, multilingual encyclopaedia project” (http://en.  ). In 2006, Time magazine recognised the people as Person of the Year. This act recognised the success of online collaboration and the interaction of millions of user’s world wide. It was recognised as one of three services that falls under Web 2.0.

Bruns states that through the creating, establishment and continuation of Wikipedia, we experience not what is known as actual knowledge but what are representations of knowledge. As a major factor of produsage, the forum allows the entire public to log on and to add/delete/edit news and facts about just about anything.

One of the greatest arguments about Wikipedia is the fact that its information is not correct, but as I have discussed in previous weeks, accuracy comes from the large number of produsers adding to specific pages. Bruns himself acknowledges that “though built through open participation, fluid heterarchical community structures, and ad hoc governance, (Wikipedia) is therefore not a rules-free zone; instead, it has developed a set of increasingly specific and complex policies for content creation and community collaboration” (Bruns, 113). The somewhat questionable status of this open sourced information is therefore justifiably accurate.

Axel Bruns acknowledges that citizen journalism “holds one of the keys to restoring access to public participation in one of the core institutions of modern society” (Bruns, pg 101). Through the enablement of new forums for knowledge, produsage and citizen journalism ties information in to the human endeavour for knowledge.

So how does this at all relate to public health? Well, as part of the almost 3 millions pages dedicated to the English speaking world, a large amount of the information is health related. A quick search can bring up articles such relating to Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD), Coronary Heart Disease and there is even a page dedicated to warts. Not that it is a highly recommended source for health related information and internet diagnosis is not at all encouraged, the forum does provide a large amount of information. This is particularly helpful for a first source of information for people who are unaware of specific medical conditions and are looking for some basic information.

Next week’s blog will be focusing on Experts and Amateurs, I do hope you come back to read on. As I remind you every week, please feel free to leave me any comments or extra information.



Axel Bruns. (2007). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage. New York: Peter Lang.

Wikipedia. (2009). Wikipedia. [Online] Available At: [Accessed 7 May, 2009].

Citizen Journalism – HAVE YOUR SAY!

This week I will discuss the concept of citizen journalism; its impact on the web, its contributors, consumers and relativity to public health in Australia today. Feel free to leave any comments with your experiences, view or your favourite ways to have a say. I would love to hear from you! was one of the first web allocated outlets for citizen journalism.  It was established in response to concerns that major news organisations were failing to sufficiently cover WTO protests. What became known as the Independent Media Center (Indymedia) started off as a group of volunteers with a make shift news room wit computers, internet lines, digital editing systems and streaming audio and video.

These days citizen journalism is an open, community based, heterarchial and meritocratic ethos of open source. That is, a source that is open and available to any person wishing to make a contribution. We can see the small initiatives such as Indymedia paved the way for independent and free rule journalism.

The process of news produsage has changed dramatically from a three stage conventional method of production to the gatewatcher news process with four counteractive stages.


Input            →           Output              →              Response



Citizen Journalism News Produsage Process:


Gatewatching    →          Input           →         Output            →        Response



We can see an evolution through the development and availability of adaptive technology of the way the journalism is made available to the public. Citizen influence and input creates sources with adaptive, broad and well informed information.

Citizen journalism in not restricted to the creative commons and strict media influences. Public health has also benefited from a citizens ability to contribute to online sources. We can see evidence of this through online sources such as and where medical practitioners are able to provide assistance to the general public. The first site, is a forum type set up where professional are able to offer remote assistance online to any person with a medical based question. The site provides more than 325 forums at a time to assist with a wide range of health issues. The second example, is a collaboration of medical professionals providing technology to other professionals around the world. It offers free interactive medical forums and resources.

We can see that, as a result of initiatives like Indymedia, journalism is no longer restricted to people who write for newspapers and magazines. So get out there! Whatever it is that you care about, have your say today, be part of this world of information sharing.

Tune in next week for a discussion on Wikipedia. Once again, feel free to leave a comment.



Axel Bruns. (2007). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage. New York: Peter Lang.

Med Help. (2009). Medical Information and Answers to Medical Questions. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 1 May, 2009].

wiredMD. (2009). Online Medical Forums and Resources. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 1 May, 2009].



“Not simply passive consumers, but active users”

As a Senior Lecturer at one of Australia’s most renowned universities and Project Leader for Social Media in the SSC Research Centre, Dr Axel Bruns is a prominent leader in the world of Social Media. His involvement in the New Media movement extends from personal input to education through the Queensland University of Technology and the publishing of his books on the topic.

Bruns initiated the concept of ‘Produsage’ as a means to “connect developments in the cultural, social, commercial, intellectual, economical and social realms” (Bruns 2007). He defined his term as “The collaborative and continuous building and extending of existing content in pursuit of further improvement” (Bruns 2007). In layman’s terms, produsage is the ability for a user of media sources to influence the outcome of the source. Bruns’ concept creates a new niche of people, a combination of producer and user, for which he calls ‘Produsers’.


The term explores the ability for a ‘user’ to have their personal input into the production and maintenance of media sources. An example of a user becoming an active Produser would be a person’s ability to utilise a media source such as Wikipedia and to not only view, but edit an entry. This person becomes a Produser the moment they change/edit the entry as they are then producing a media reference, it is here that they become an active user.

Bruns highlights four key principles of Produsage. These principles build upon preconditions of Produsage for which it operates. These principles are:

  1. Open Participation and Communal Evaluation –

“Given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow”

This concept assumes that open participation within the media community acquires a high level of accuracy through high rates of evaluation and examination. That is when, a single person creates a blog/online statement, then the blog/statement is viewed by a series of other people (professional and non professional) who are able to change and edit the work. This, in turn creates a refined text that would have been edited by several sources therefore eliminating any real risk of false information.

  1. . Fluid Hierarchy, Ad Hoc Meritocracy –

This concept describes the hierarchy that exists within networked projects. It embraces that fact that knowledge of all participants may not and would not be equal but that their ability to participate is. It is therefore recognised that hierarchical margins must be fluid, which is, having the ability to move freely. This is beneficial to online networking as content does not require the input of every member of a team, a person can have free reign over how much or how little they contribute.

  1. Unfinished Artifacts, Continuing Process –

This concept embraces the fact that content as a result of produsage will never be complete. Projects are not designed with an ultimate goal to be finished. Online networking and projects are infinite, always to be edited and changed with the discovery of new information, technology, view and perceptions.

  1. Common Property, Individual Rewards –

This final concept describes the fact that all produsage is held as a community asset; therefore producers of the content of shared projects are to be recognised and rewarded. A producer may seek personal merit from the fact that their contribution is communally recognised and from this can take further motivation to participate within produsage communities and projects.

In future weeks I will be discussing a series of media topics like this week but I will link in its impact on and relationship to public health in Australia today, as this will be my future career path. I hope that you have enjoyed my first entry and come back for more….

Axel Bruns. (2007). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage. New York: Peter Lang.

Axel Bruns. (2009). Produsage: Key Components. [Online] Available at: [Accessed: April 20, 2009]

Axel Bruns. (2003). Professional Information. [Online] Available at:  [Accessed: April 20, 2009]